# History

At Kyiv University the scientific-educational activity in the field of mathematics and mechanics has been carried out for 170 years: since its foundation in a structure of Philosophical Faculty there was a Division of Physics and Mathematics.

Later, in 1849, on the basis of this division the faculty of the same name was organized. The first professors of mathematics in Kyiv University were: S.S.Vyzhevs'kyj, G.V.Grechyna, O.M.Tykhomandryts'kyj, M.A.Dyachenko, A.A.Dyachenko. Due to their efforts, in the middle of XIX century the level of teaching of mathematics and mechanics at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics approached the educational standards of Russia and Europe.

The further development of the indicated disciplines in the last quarter of XIX century was promoted by such outstanding figures as I.I.Rakhmaninov, P.E.Romer, M.E.Vashchenko-Zakharchenko, V.P.Yermakov, B.Ya.Bukreev, G.K.Suslov. Due to their initiative, in 1890 there was created the Physical and Mathematical Society in Kyiv, whose activity was directed on popularization and propagation of advanced scientific ideas among Kyiv mathematicians.

The end of XIX and the beginning of XX century were the period of growth, establishment and recognition of mathematical school of Kyiv University. P.M.Pokrovs'kyj, O.P.Kotel'nikov and later D.O.Grave joined the pleiad of the professors of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics; also G.V.Pfeiffer and P.V.Voronets' started here their own ways in the science.

Extremely fruitful and bright activity of D.O.Grave in Kyiv University lasted during 1902-1939. The majority of his pupils became the world famous scientists. Professors M.G.Chebotarev, O.Yu.Shmidt, B.M.Delone, M.P.Kravchuk, Yu.D.Sokolov, V.P.Vel'min, N.I.Akhiezer, O.M.Ostrowski, I.Ya.Shtaierman were among them.

By the 1917, Kyiv school of mathematics and mechanics had overgrew the university walls and helped to reinforce other higher educational institutions. This process, unfortunately, had been suspended after revolution, when during 1920-1933 the faculty existed in the structure of KINE (Kyiv Institute of National Education) and PhCMI (Physical-Chemical-Mathematical Institute). Essentially simplified mathematical programs and low training level of students had negative influence on training of the scientific staff. In this situation, the research department for the post-graduate students (first governed by O.P.Kotel'nikov and later by O.D.Grave) played rather positive role. Among its graduates were the future deputy members of the Academy of Science of UkrSSR V.E.Dyachenko, M.Kh.Orlov, N.I.Akhiezer, E.Ya.Remez.

The 1920-1930 were the years of fruitful scientific and pedagogical activity carried out in Kyiv University by the world famous Ukrainian mathematician - academician Kravchuk. The area of his scientific interests was extremely wide and embraced various branches of algebra, function theory, differential equations, theory of probabilities. The considerable contribution had been made by M.P.Kravchuk into the development of Ukrainian mathematical terminology. His analytical survey "Mathematicians and mathematics at Kyiv university during hundred years (1834-1934)" (see [1]) is the paper of great interest for chroniclers of Kyiv University. The creative ascent of Kravchuk had been broken in 1938, when he was groundlessly repressed as well as many other representatives of the Ukrainian elite.

The renewal of Kyiv University activity in 1933 had essential impact on the development of Ukrainian mathematics and mechanics. The educational programs in these disciplines during one or two years reached the level of leading USSR universities, namely, Moscow and Leningrad ones. The subjects of scientific researches were extended. Departments of Geometry and General Mathematics were created, and Mechanics Department recommenced its activity. Scientific directions connected with applied researches were developing especially intensively. Many young perspective scientists started their teaching activity at the faculty: the future academicians M.M.Bogolyubov and M.O.Kil'chevs'kyj, the future deans V.E.Dyachenko, S.S.Movshits, K.Ya.Latysheva, M.M.Sidlyar. There arose a sharp necessity to set up a separate subdivision in the University for the specialized training in mathematics and mechanics.

So, in 1940 on the basis of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Kyiv University there appeared two new ones - the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics (the first dean -S.S.Movshits) and the Faculty of Physics. Unfortunately, the further development of the Mechanics and Mathematics Faculty was interrupted by the war.

In January 1944, two months after the liberation of Kyiv from German invaders, the activity of the University had been renewed in Kyiv. In spite of difficult conditions, the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics quickly developed. There were established new departments: of Mathematical Analysis, of Mathematical Physics, of Integral and Differential Equations, of Algebra and Probability Theory, of Elasticity Theory (at first it had a title the Department of Strength of Materials, then - of Elasticity Theory and Strength of Materials).

The faculty successes in that period were first of all due to self-denying activity of the outstanding scientists: M.M.Bogolyubov (dean of the faculty from 1944 to 1950, the head of the Department of Mathematical Physics), M.O.Lavrentiev (from 1945 to 1949 governed the Department of Mathematical Analysis), O.Yu.Ishlins'kyj (professor of the Department of Elastisity Theory from 1949 to 1956), O.M.Dynnik (from 1944 to 1945 governed the Department of Strength of Materials), G.M.Savin (governed the Department of Elasticity Theory and Strength of Materials in 1945), J.Z.Shtokalo (governed the Department of Integral and Differential Equations from 1946 to 1970 and in 1952-1956), Yu.D.Sokolov (governed the Department of Mechanics from 1943 to 1949).

Their fruitful scientific and pedagogical activity stimulated the further intensive development of the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics during 1950-1960. In that period, such known scientists worked at the faculty as V.M.Glushkov, B.V.Gnedenko (headed the department of a Mathematical Analysis and Probability Theory in 1949-1950), A.D.Kovalenko (headed the Department of the Elasticity Theory from 1949 to 1959), V.S.Korolyuk, I.I. Lyashko (dean of the faculty in 1965-1969 and in 1985-1987), Yu.O.Mytropol's'kyj (headed the Department of Integral and Differential Equations from 1952 to 1953), V.S.Mikhalevich, O.S.Parasyuk (headed the Department of Mathematical Analysis and Probability Theory from 1954 to 1960), I.T.Shvets' (rector of the University from 1955 to 1970), A.V.Skorokhod, Yu.M.Berezans'kyj, J.I.Gikhman (headed the department of Mathematical Analysis and Probability Theory from 1960 to 1962, Department of Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics in 1962-1965), V.K.Dzyadyk (headed the Department of Mathematical Analysis from 1962 to 1968), G.M.Polozhij (headed the Department of Mathematical Physics in 1951-1958, Department of Computational Mathematics - in 1958-1968), G.E.Shilov (headed the Department of Mathematical Analysis from 1950 to 1955), V.J.Putyata (dean of the faculty from 1957 to 1965), A.L.Naumov (headed the Department of Theoretical Mechanics in 1950-1955 and in 1960-1974), O.O.Nazarov (headed the Department of Theoretical Mechanics in 1954-1958).

The structure of the faculty continued to develop and to progress: in 1956, there was organized the Department of Aerohydromechanics and Heat Exchange . Its first head was academician I.T.Shvets' (later he became a rector of the University); on the initiative of professor L.A.Kaluzhnin there was organized the Department of Algebra and Mathematical Logic (1959); in 1962, there appeared the Department of Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics headed by professor J.I. Gikhman. With the direct participation of the academician V.M.Glushkov, the training of experts in computational mathematics and theoretical cybernetics had been started.

An important event in the life of Kyiv University happened in 1969, when owning to the initiative V.M.Glushkov, I.J.Lyashko and I.T.Shvets' the Faculty of Cybernetics had been set up.

In the first half of 70-s, positive qualitative changes in the staff of the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics took place. Its leading associated professors V.I.Savchenko, Yu.I.Shmakov, MJ.Yadrenko, A.Ya.Dorogovtsev, G.L.Kulinich defended their doctoral theses. Three leading professors came to the University from the Academy of Sciences: A.M.Samojlenko (governed the Department of Integral and Differential Equations from 1974 to 1987), O.O.Goroshko (governed the Department of Theoretical Mechanics from 1975 to 1985), A.F.Ulitko (he was the dean of the faculty from 1980 to 1985 and the first pro-rector of the university in 1985-1988).

In the second half of 70-s, on the initiative of the faculty dean S.T.Zavalo (headed the faculty from 1971 to 1980, governed the Department of Algebra from 1970 to 1980) and to provide training of highly skilled staff for national education system the recruiting of students to mathematical division had been increased. Since that time, the graduates from this division have got the qualification "mathematician-teacher".

In 60-70-s the activity of the faculty scientists focused on implementation of self-supporting researches became more intensive. The increasing amount of the orders from the enterprises and organizations caused the necessity to organize research laboratories at Department of Elasticity Theory and Department of Aerohydromechanics and Heat Exchange.

The especially favorable conditions for the development of the laboratory base of the faculty were created at the beginning of 80-s, when the faculty was settled in the new separate building at Academician Glushkov Prospectus. The great works on preparation and organization of moving of the faculty was carried out by its deans S.T.Zavalo and A.F.Ulitko.

In 1984 Kyiv University celebrated a remarkable event - 150-th anniversary of its foundation. The analytical paper of A.F.Ulitko [2] was devoted to the analysis of the development of mathematics and mechanics at Kyiv Uiversity for a century and a half. The Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics had approached its 150-th anniversary with significant achievements. To meet the demands of education and national economy the educational plans and programs were reconsidered and advanced, the quality of teaching of disciplines was improved, the amount of published scientific-methodical literature increased, the students' and post-graduate students' scientific activity became more intensive. The considerable number of the candidates of sciences was prepared for republics of Central Asia, developing countries. At the middle of 80-s, the amount of self-supporting research financing was about 1 million roubles per one year.

At that time, there were 10 departments in the structure of the faculty: of Mathematical Analysis (headed by professor A.Ya.Dorogovtsev), of Algebra and Mathematical Logic (headed by professor Yu.A.Drozd), of Geometry (headed by professor M.LKovantsov), of Integral and Differential equations (headed by deputy member of Academy of Sciences A.M.Samoilenko), of Mathematical Physics (headed by professor A.A.Glushchenko), of Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics (headed by professor M.J.Yadrenko), of Theoretical Mechanics (headed by professor O.O.Goroshko), of Elasticity Theory (headed by professor V.I.Savchenko), of Aerohydromechanics and Heat Exchange (headed by professor Yu.I.Shmakov), and of General Mathematics (headed by professor G.L.Kulinich).

After the reorganization of university research section (RS), the functioning of a system of research laboratories at the faculty became rather effective. This structure united scientific potentials of professors, teachers and regular scientific researchers (the number of the last ones had reached 160 persons at that time). By the end of 80-s there were 6 such laboratories, namely: of Operations Research and Applied Statistics (scientific chief professor M.J.Yadrenko), Computational Methods in Applied Problems (scientific chief professor V.I.Savchenko), Numerical and Experimental Methods of Deformable Rigid Body Mechanics (scientific chief V.I.Savchenko), Conjugate Undular Fields (scientific chief professor A.F.Ulitko), of Differential Equations and their Applications in Mechanics (scientific chief professor M.O.Perestyuk), Mathematical Problems of Fluid Mechanics, Gas and Plasma (scientific chief-senior scientific researcher V.I.Rosumnyuk).

In 1987, there was created the design bureau "Spectrum" on the basis of Laboratory of Operations Research and Applied Statistics. The bureau had been headed by professor D.S.Silvestrov. Its structure included 3 laboratories and design department, and its activity was linked with fulfillment of the tasks of a military-industrial complex of the USSR.

At the first half of 90-s crisis phenomena in the state economy led to reducing financing of education and science, falling down of prestige of occupations, connected with intellectual activity. All this facts had negative consequences for the faculty, and, in particular, for its research section; the design bureau "Spectrum" and a part of laboratories had stopped their existence; an amount of the permanent staff of RS had been considerably decreased. However, in this difficult situation, the faculty headed by the deputy member of NAS of Ukraine M.O.Perestyuk continued to develop.

From the beginning of 90-s, the faculty started training of the experts of the highest qualification through the doctorate. The number of post-graduates increased considerably (annual recruitment for post-graduate studies of the faculty has reached 30 persons). The teachers of the faculty had published Ukrainian-language textbooks and manuals with a signature stamp of Ministry of Education of Ukraine, in particular,: A.Ya.Dorogovtsev. Mathematical Analysis, (in 2 volumes) - Kyiv: Lybid', 1993, 1994; A.M.Samojlenko, M.O.Perestyuk, I.O.Parasyuk. Differential Equations. - Kyiv: Lybid', 1994; M.P.Moklyachuk. Calculus of Variations. Extremal Problems. - Kyiv: Lybid', 1994; O.I.Ponomarenko, M.O.Perestyuk, V.M.Burym. Foundations of mathematical economy. -Kyiv: Informtekhnika, 1995; M.M.Leonenko, Yu.S.Mishura, V.M.Parkhomenko, M.J.Yadrenko. Probabilistic and Statistical Methods in Econometrics and Financial Mathematics. - Kyiv: Informtekhnika, 1995; Higher Mathematics (in two books). Edited by prof. G.L.Kulinich. - Kyiv: Lybid', 1995.

There increased the park of personal computers, the display classes were organized, and later the faculty Internet web began to develop.

The democratization of society considerably intensified international contacts of faculty scientists with their foreign colleagues. As a consequence, a number of foreign business trips has sharply increased.

In 1995 due to the initiative of the "Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, and in particular, of the Department of Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics, the new mathematical speciality "Statistics" was included into the State Register. In 1996/97 educational year, the preparation of the bachelors, specialists and masters on this speciality started. Since 1997, the faculty in collaboration with Stockholm University, Universities of Umea (Sweden) and Helsinki (Finland) has sequentially carried out two TEMPUS-TACIS projects aimed at the development of new mathematical specializations of economic direction. With the purpose of propagation of economical-mathematical knowledge, a public association "Economical-Mathematical Centre" (president - corresponding member of NAS of Ukraine M.O. Perestyuk, director - associated professor O.I.Ponomarenko) had been founded at the faculty.

In 1993 the Department of Continua Mechanics initiated to organize the Research and Educational Centre "Physics, Mechanics and Technologies of Nonhomogeneous Systems" (director - associated professor T.Yu.Kepich), which since 1998 has a title the Educational-Scientific Centre "Physico-Chemical Materials Technology". On the basis of this Centre the experts in new specialization "Physico-Chemical Materials Technology and Mechanics of Materials" are trained.

During 1990-2002 positive qualitative changes in the structure of faculty personnel took place. The doctoral theses were defended by the assistant professors Yu.S.Mishura (1990), V.I.Sushchans'kyj (1991), V.O.Ustymenko (1993), M.P.Moklyachuk (1995), I.O.Parasyuk (1995), V.M.Futornyj (1995), V.V.Bavula (1996), O.G.Kukush (1995), A.P.Petravchuk (1999), V.S.Mazorchuk (2000), T.A.Mel'nyk (2001), O.M.Stanzhyts'kyj (2002), scientific researchers O.Yu.Zharij (1991), R.E.Majboroda (1994), N.M.Zinchenko (1995), V.I.Masol (1995).

In December 2010, the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics celebrated its 70-th anniversary. To this date there was issued the book, which contains extremely interesting sketches from the history of the departments, characteristics of scientific schools and analysis of faculty activity at present stage.